Accordingly, they are also probabilistic and not in themselves originally selected or adequate, but on them there subsequently operates natural selection which eliminates inappropriate mutations. Now we could conceive of a similar process with respect to new ideas and to free-will decisions, and similar things. That is to say, a range of possibilities is brought about by a probabilistic and quantum mechanically characterised set of proposals, as it were—of possibilities brought forward by the brain.
On these there then operates a kind of selective procedure which eliminates those proposals and those possibilities which are not acceptable to the mind. In an interview  that Popper gave in with the condition that it should be kept secret until after his death, he summarised his position on God as follows: "I don't know whether God exists or not. Some forms of atheism are arrogant and ignorant and should be rejected, but agnosticism —to admit that we don't know and to search—is all right.
When I look at what I call the gift of life, I feel a gratitude which is in tune with some religious ideas of God. However, the moment I even speak of it, I am embarrassed that I may do something wrong to God in talking about God. Why then should the Jewish myth be true and the Indian and Egyptian myths not be true? Popper helped to establish the philosophy of science as an autonomous discipline within philosophy, through his own prolific and influential works, and also through his influence on his own contemporaries and students.
Popper founded in the Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method at the London School of Economics and there lectured and influenced both Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend , two of the foremost philosophers of science in the next generation of philosophy of science. Lakatos significantly modified Popper's position,  : 1 and Feyerabend repudiated it entirely, but the work of both is deeply influenced by Popper and engaged with many of the problems that Popper set.
While there is some dispute as to the matter of influence, Popper had a long-standing and close friendship with economist Friedrich Hayek , who was also brought to the London School of Economics from Vienna. Each found support and similarities in the other's work, citing each other often, though not without qualification. In a letter to Hayek in , Popper stated, "I think I have learnt more from you than from any other living thinker, except perhaps Alfred Tarski. For his part, Hayek dedicated a collection of papers, Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics , to Popper, and in said, " Popper also had long and mutually influential friendships with art historian Ernst Gombrich , biologist Peter Medawar , and neuroscientist John Carew Eccles.
The German jurist Reinhold Zippelius uses Popper's method of "trial and error" in his legal philosophy. Popper's influence, both through his work in philosophy of science and through his political philosophy, has also extended beyond the academy. Most criticisms of Popper's philosophy are of the falsification , or error elimination, element in his account of problem solving.
Popper presents falsifiability as both an ideal and as an important principle in a practical method of effective human problem solving; as such, the current conclusions of science are stronger than pseudo-sciences or non-sciences , insofar as they have survived this particularly vigorous selection method. He does not argue that any such conclusions are therefore true, or that this describes the actual methods of any particular scientist. Rather, it is recommended as an essential principle of methodology that, if enacted by a system or community, will lead to slow but steady progress of a sort relative to how well the system or community enacts the method.
It has been suggested that Popper's ideas are often mistaken for a hard logical account of truth because of the historical co-incidence of their appearing at the same time as logical positivism , the followers of which mistook his aims for their own. The Quine-Duhem thesis argues that it's impossible to test a single hypothesis on its own, since each one comes as part of an environment of theories.
Thus we can only say that the whole package of relevant theories has been collectively falsified, but cannot conclusively say which element of the package must be replaced. An example of this is given by the discovery of the planet Neptune : when the motion of Uranus was found not to match the predictions of Newton's laws, the theory "There are seven planets in the solar system" was rejected, and not Newton's laws themselves. For Popper, theories are accepted or rejected via a sort of selection process.
Theories that say more about the way things appear are to be preferred over those that do not; the more generally applicable a theory is, the greater its value. Thus Newton's laws, with their wide general application, are to be preferred over the much more specific "the solar system has seven planets". The philosopher Thomas Kuhn writes in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions that he places an emphasis on anomalous experiences similar to that Popper places on falsification. However, he adds that anomalous experiences cannot be identified with falsification, and questions whether theories could be falsified in the manner suggested by Popper.
Popper claimed to have recognised already in the version of his Logic of Discovery a fact later stressed by Kuhn, "that scientists necessarily develop their ideas within a definite theoretical framework", and to that extent to have anticipated Kuhn's central point about "normal science". Science must begin with myths, and with the criticism of myths; neither with the collection of observations, nor with the invention of experiments, but with the critical discussion of myths, and of magical techniques and practices.
The scientific tradition is distinguished from the pre-scientific tradition in having two layers. Like the latter, it passes on its theories; but it also passes on a critical attitude towards them. The theories are passed on, not as dogmas, but rather with the challenge to discuss them and improve upon them. Another objection is that it is not always possible to demonstrate falsehood definitively, especially if one is using statistical criteria to evaluate a null hypothesis.
More generally it is not always clear, if evidence contradicts a hypothesis, that this is a sign of flaws in the hypothesis rather than of flaws in the evidence. However, this is a misunderstanding of what Popper's philosophy of science sets out to do. Rather than offering a set of instructions that merely need to be followed diligently to achieve science, Popper makes it clear in The Logic of Scientific Discovery that his belief is that the resolution of conflicts between hypotheses and observations can only be a matter of the collective judgment of scientists, in each individual case.
In Science Versus Crime , Houck writes  that Popper's falsificationism can be questioned logically: it is not clear how Popper would deal with a statement like "for every metal, there is a temperature at which it will melt. These examples were pointed out by Carl Gustav Hempel. Hempel came to acknowledge that Logical Positivism's verificationism was untenable, but argued that falsificationism was equally untenable on logical grounds alone. The simplest response to this is that, because Popper describes how theories attain, maintain and lose scientific status, individual consequences of currently accepted scientific theories are scientific in the sense of being part of tentative scientific knowledge, and both of Hempel's examples fall under this category.
For instance, atomic theory implies that all metals melt at some temperature. An early adversary of Popper's critical rationalism, Karl-Otto Apel attempted a comprehensive refutation of Popper's philosophy. In Transformation der Philosophie , Apel charged Popper with being guilty of, amongst other things, a pragmatic contradiction. Scruton maintains that Freudian theory has both "theoretical terms" and "empirical content.
Nevertheless, Scruton also concluded that Freudian theory is not genuinely scientific. According to Taylor, Popper's criticisms are completely baseless, but they are received with an attention and respect that Popper's "intrinsic worth hardly merits". The philosopher John Gray writes in Straw Dogs that Popper's account of scientific method would have prevented the theories of Charles Darwin and Albert Einstein from being accepted.
Selz never published his ideas, partly because of the rise of Nazism , which forced him to quit his work in and prohibited any reference to his ideas. Popper, the historian of ideas and his scholarship, is criticised in some academic quarters for his rejection of Plato, Hegel and Marx. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Vienna , Austria-Hungary. London , England , UK. Epistemology Rationality Philosophy of science Logic Social and political philosophy Metaphysics Philosophy of mind Origin of life Interpretations of quantum mechanics. Main article: Critical rationalism.
Main article: Paradox of tolerance. Main article: Popper's three worlds. This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. January Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Schools of thought. Regional variants. Related topics. Bias in academia Bias in the media.
Edited by Jeremy Shearmur and Piers Norris Turner, this volume contains a large number of Popper's previously unpublished or uncollected writings on political and social themes. Philosophy of science portal Liberalism portal. Calculus of predispositions Contributions to liberal theory Critique of psychoanalysis Evolutionary epistemology Liberalism in Austria Popper legend Positivism dispute Predispositioning theory Poper Scientific Stand up.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Zalta, Edward N. Karl Popper Winter ed. Cambridge University Press. Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press 2nd ed. From Physics to Metaphysics. Shadows of the Mind. Oxford University Press. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Fifty Major Political Thinkers. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
Retrieved January Popper — The Intellectual Warrior". Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Bartley Section IX. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, The Story of Philosophy. New York: DK Publishing , Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 21 December Popper  Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography , p.
The Great Philosophers London: Phoenix, p. Neue Folge Band 18 , S. Philosopher of 'Open Society ' ". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November Sir Karl Popper, a philosopher who was a defender of democratic systems of government, died today in a hospital here. He was He died of complications of cancer, pneumonia and kidney failure, said a manager at the hospital in this London suburb.
Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 1 December Inamori Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 9 June Miller Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Karl Popper. The Formative Years. Is Falsifiability the Touchstone of Scientific Rationality? The myth of the framework: in defence of science and rationality. Editor:Mark Amadeus Notturno. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 25 April — via Internet Archive.
City University of Hong Kong. All Life is Problem Solving. Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography , pp. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 26 May Editions du Seuil, Paris. Retrieved 18 October Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, Keuth: The philosophy of Karl Popper , section See also John Watkins: Popper and Darwinism.
Primary sources are, in particular, Objective Knowledge: An evolutionary approach , section "Evolution and the Tree of Knowledge"; Evolutionary epistemology Eds. Radnitzsky, W.
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Bartley , section "Natural selection and the emergence of mind"; In search of a better world , section "Knowledge and the shaping of rationality: the search for a better world", p. Eccles , sections "The biological approach to human knowledge and intelligence" and "The biological function of conscious and intelligent activity".
Miller: Karl Popper, a scientific memoir. Out of Error , p. The Hopeful Behavioural Monster" p. Popper, The Poverty of Historicism , p. All life is problem solving , chapter 7, pp. Imre Lakatos and the Guises of Reason. Duke University Press Books. Retrieved 22 January The Age of Fallibility. NY: Public Affairs. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Berkeley: University of California Press. Sexual Desire: A Philosophical Investigation. London: Phoenix. Straw Dogs. Granta Books, London. See Also: "In spite of the high rating one must accord his initial intention of fairness, his hatred for the enemies of the 'open society,' his zeal to destroy whatever seems to him destructive of the welfare of mankind, has led him into the extensive use of what may be called terminological counterpropaganda Levinson , New York, , Russell and Russell, Lube, Manfred.
Bibliographie — Wissenschaftstheorie, Sozialphilosophie, Logik, Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie, Naturwissenschaften. Schriftenreihe der Karl Popper Foundation Klagenfurt.
Current edition Gattei, Stefano. Karl Popper's Philosophy of Science. Miller, David. Critical Rationalism: A Restatement and Defence. David Miller Ed. Popper Selections. Watkins, John W. Science and Scepticism. Princeton Princeton University Press. Miller, ed. Volume III: Science. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate The only book-length examination of Popper's relevance to education. Unfathomed Knowledge, Unmeasured Wealth. A look at Popper and his influence by one of his students. Berkson, William K. The fundamental critique from the Marxist standpoint. Edmonds, D. Wittgenstein's Poker. New York: Ecco A review of the origin of the conflict between Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein , focused on events leading up to their volatile first encounter at Cambridge meeting.
Feyerabend, Paul Against Method. London: New Left Books, A polemical, iconoclastic book by a former colleague of Popper's. Vigorously critical of Popper's rationalist view of science. Hacohen, M. Karl Popper: The Formative Years, — Hickey, J. Durham and London: Duke University Press, Explains how Imre Lakatos developed Popper's philosophy into a historicist and critical theory of scientific method.
Keuth, Herbert. The Philosophy of Karl Popper. An accurate scholarly overview of Popper's philosophy, ideal for students. Kuhn, Thomas S. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Central to contemporary philosophy of science is the debate between the followers of Kuhn and Popper on the nature of scientific enquiry. This is the book in which Kuhn's views received their classical statement. With forewords by Isaac Asimov and Helmut Schmidt.
Includes an interview with Sir Ernst Gombrich. Lindh, Allan Goddard 11 November Bibcode : Natur. Magee, Bryan. London: Fontana, An elegant introductory text. Very readable, albeit rather uncritical of its subject, by a former Member of Parliament. Confessions of a Philosopher , Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Magee's philosophical autobiography, with a chapter on his relations with Popper.
More critical of Popper than in the previous reference. An exposition and development of Popper's philosophy of science and social philosophy, available free online. Munz, Peter. Attempts to synthesize and reconcile the differences between these two philosophers. Niemann, Hans-Joachim. More than a thousand headwords about critical rationalism, the most important arguments of K. Popper and H. Albert, quotations of the original wording. Notturno, Mark Amadeus. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, On Popper. Wadsworth Philosophers Series. A very comprehensive book on Popper's philosophy by an accomplished Popperian.
O'Hear, Anthony. London: Routledge, A critical account of Popper's thought, viewed from the perspective of contemporary analytic philosophy. Cohen Rethinking Popper. Description and contents. Radnitzky, Gerard, Bartley, W. III eds. A strong collection of essays by Popper, Campbell, Munz, Flew, et al. Includes a particularly vigorous answer to Rorty's criticisms.
Critical Food Issues by Lynn Walter and Laurel E. Phoenix, Editors - Praeger - ABC-CLIO
Richmond, Sheldon. Rowbottom, Darrell P. A research monograph on Popper's philosophy of science and epistemology. It critiques and develops critical rationalism in light of more recent advances in mainstream philosophy. Schilpp, Paul A. One of the better contributions to the Library of Living Philosophers series. Contains Popper's intellectual autobiography v. I, pp. Shearmur, Jeremy. The Political Thought of Karl Popper. London and New York: Routledge, Study of Popper's political thought by a former assistant of Popper's.
Makes use of archive sources and studies the development of Popper's political thought and its inter-connections with his epistemology.
Shearmur, Jeremy In Hamowy, Ronald ed. Karl Popper — The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Stokes, G. Popper: Philosophy, Politics and Scientific Method. Cambridge: Polity Press, A very comprehensive, balanced study, which focuses largely on the social and political side of Popper's thought. Stove, D.
Oxford: Pergamon. A vigorous attack, especially on Popper's restricting himself to deductive logic. Tausch, Arno Weimer, W. Cognition and the Symbolic Processes. Bold hypothesis Critical rationalism Falsifiability Growth of knowledge Open society Popper's experiment Popper's three worlds. Links to related articles.
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